To define and secure boilers safely, some professional specialized organizations such as the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) develop standards and regulation codes.For instance, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code is a standard providing a wide range of rules and directives to ensure compliance of the boilers and other pressure vessels with safety, security and design standards.5 Historically, boilers were a source of many serious injuries and property destruction due to poorly understood engineering principles.
Thin and brittle metal shells can rupture, while poorly welded or riveted seams could open up, leading to a violent eruption of the pressurized steam.When water is converted to steam it expands to over 1,000 times its original volume and travels down steam pipes at over 100 kilometres per hour. Because of this, steam is a great way of moving energy and heat around a site from a central boiler house to where it is needed, but without the right boiler feed water treatment, a steam-raising plant will suffer from scale formation and corrosion.
At best, this increases energy costs and can lead to poor quality steam, reduced efficiency, shorter plant life and unreliable operation.At worst, it can lead to catastrophic failure and loss of life.
Collapsed or dislodged boiler tubes can also spray scalding-hot steam and smoke out of the air intake and firing chute, injuring the firemen who load the coal into the fire chamber.
Extremely large boilers providing hundreds of horsepower to operate factories can potentially demolish entire buildings.
A boiler that has a loss of feed water and is permitted to boil dry can be extremely dangerous.If feed water is then sent into the empty boiler, the small cascade of incoming water instantly boils on contact with the superheated metal shell and leads to a violent explosion that cannot be controlled even by safety steam valves.
Draining of the boiler can also happen if a leak occurs in the steam supply lines that is larger than the make-up water supply could replace.The Hartford Loop was invented in 1919 by the Hartford Steam Boiler and Insurance Company as a method to help prevent this condition from occurring, and thereby reduce their insurance claimsŹródło: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boiler#Safety
The same continuous turning off the valve after using the toilet is also very cumbersome.The cause of such a failure can be simply over-exploitation of domestic cistern, although sometimes it is hard to reduce the number of made flushes water in the toilet.
Pipes are commonly joined by welding, using threaded pipe and fittings; sealing the connection with a pipe thread compound, Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Thread seal tape, oakum, or PTFE string, or by using a mechanical coupling.
Process piping is usually joined by welding using a TIG or MIG process.
The most common pipe thread in North America is the National Pipe Thread (NPT) or the Dryseal (NPTF) version.Other pipe threads include the British standard pipe thread (BSPT), the garden hose thread (GHT), and the fire hose coupling (NST). Copper pipes are typically joined by soldering, brazing, compression fittings, flaring, or crimping.
Push-on joints are available on most types of pipe.